The “Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts – JOSHA” has been initiated to create a novel internet platform to access the broad diversity of important discoveries and creativity in the fields of Science, Humanities and Arts. Read more ...

ISSN: 2364-0626 Volume 5, Issue 1

Imagined Enemies, Concrete Victims. The Speech of Léon Mugesera and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994

Fosco Bugoni, Giovanni Corvino

Affiliation: University of Milano-Bicocca

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.382

Languages: English

The case that will be analysed is the speech delivered by the political figure Léon Mugesera in November 1992, linked to the Rwandan genocide of 1994. Through his words, it is possible to trace some of the main narratives that primed the ground for the genocide. They are an example of the processes through which a clear enemy, the Tutsi, have been imagined and defined prior to and during the outbreak of 1994 large-scale violence. The first aim of this paper is therefore to understand how modern state-level forces in Rwanda operated to generate narratives that strengthened ethnic affiliations in the eve of the genocide. The second aim is to investigate to what extent the genocidal violence was the product of relentless propaganda, unfounded rumours, prejudices and of collective memory.


Jazz e Sostituzioni Armoniche: Verso un Nuovo Formalismo - Jazz and Harmonic Substitutions: Towards a New Formalism

Carmine Cataldo

Affiliation: Independent Researcher, Jazz Pianist and Composer, PhD in Mechanical Engineering, Battipaglia (SA), Italy

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.381

Languages: Italian

This article represents a translated and revised version of the paper “Towards a Music Algebra: Fundamental Harmonic Substitutions in Jazz”. In this paper, the most common harmonic substitutions, at least as far as jazz music is concerned, is unconventionally addressed. The novelty consists of introducing a new method finalized to formally defining and logically applying all the fundamental harmonic substitutions, by exploiting an unusually rigorous notation. After defining the substitutions and discussing their applicability, we resort to them in order to modify some simple harmonic progressions substantially based upon a banal major turnaround.


Search for synthetic and natural substances with in vitro bioactivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Maria-Fernanda Moreno , Wellman Ribón

Affiliation: Universidad Industrial de Santander. Colombia.

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.380

Languages: Spanish, Castilian

tuberculosis (TB) is still considered as an important worldwide health problem. For this reason, national and international health agencies encourage the researchers to improve and strengthen the control strategies and disease treatment. Currently, there have been important advances in the discovery and development of drugs that probably will be included in the standard scheme of anti-TB treatment, however for many of the current treatments, there have been resistant strains reported and even worst for most of the new treatments resistance is expected, making it necessary to maintain a continuous search for treatment alternatives.


Frau Kakerlake und Herr Maus

Mitra Zarif-Kayvan

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.378

Languages: German, Persian

"Khale Suske und Agha Mushe" (In Persian for Aunt cockroach and Mr. Maus) is the most famous and most popular child fairy tale in Iran which has been orally passed on from one generation to another. The fairy tale revolves around a cockroach, Khale Suske who is nice and eloquent and she proceeds completely alone on an adventurous, perilous trip to marry the rich businessman Mash Ramezun. At the end, she meets Agha Mushe with and her life takes an unexpected change. The central figures of this fable, the cockroach, and the mouse correspond to the characters from original story. The craftsmen appearing as animals are inventions of Mitra Zarif-Kayvan. Mitra Zarif-Kayvan was born in Teheran / Iran. At the age of 32 years, she emigrated with her two daughters to Germany and lives currently in Dusseldorf. She works as a freelance painter and art teacher in elementary schools and kindergartens. Besides she is also a storyteller and writes poems and stories.


Psychology based on evidence and panic disorder; analysis of a case study

Jorge Alberto Velásques Castrillón

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.377

Languages: Spanish, Castilian

This single case study aims to analyse the case of a patient suffering panic disorder, accompanied by a recurrent depressive disorder. As a treatment, therapies based on empirical evidence were used. During the evaluation phase, a symptoms severity scale for panic disorder, a depression inventory from Beck, 1979 and a clinical interview were used; additionally, therapeutic targets were proposed, and panic cognitive therapy was applied; the therapy was developed during 17 treatment sessions, where the techniques of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, relaxation and interceptive exposure were used; At the end of the treatment there was a significant decrease in the symptoms of panic, anxiety and depression that helped to improve the overall conditions of the patient. When comparing the results obtained after the treatment process, the results show congruencies with the available literature.


Rolling Pumpkin

Mitra Zarif-Kayvan

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.379

Languages: German, Persian

''The rolling pumpkin'' is a very popular children's fairy tale in Iran which has been orally passed on from one generation to another. Moreover, ''the rolling pumpkin'' has been published as a picture book with Persian text and rhymes in different versions. The fairy tale revolves around an old woman who is strong, courageous and self-confident. She lives completely alone and makes her own living. She embarks alone on a perilous trip to visit her daughter. On the way to the daughter, she encounters dangerous animals. She is scared but resists and defends herself. At the end, she saves her life completely alone with courage, cleverness, and reason. With the support of Ghazaleh Hinzen (Shayan) and Jan Michaelis. This is a preview of the full book, which can be ordered directly from the author or by completing the order form by pressing the "Order Book/Reprint" button.


TRANSCEND a new Translational Medicine hub at the east edge of European Union.

Eugen Carasevici

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.376

Languages: English

The functional concept of TRANSCEND is equally in favor of independent continuation and subsistence of each unit through dedicated projects and financial capital as well as comprehensive projects that fit into place all units of the center for the design of a biomarker with diagnostic value and ultimately linked to the application of a specific and tailored therapy. Pairing Diagnostics with Therapeutics is currently framed under the notion of theranostic. TRANSCEND will promote this convention implying that drugs must be paired with diagnostic biomarkers to enable the right drug to be selected for the right patient at the right time. Central to the integration in such a scheme, which aspire to diagnose, deliver targeted therapy and monitor the response to therapy, is the growth of units of proteomics, bioinformatics and isotopic tracer production for developing a translational biomarker repertoire and a functionally interpretable systems medicine.


DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP AN INSTRUMENT FOR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT: THE STUDY OF PUBLIC SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN GHANA

Dandy George D. Dampson

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.374

Languages: English

The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of distributed leadership in Public Senior High Schools (SHS) with regard to school improvement. Using the Explanatory Sequential Mixed-Method design, 92 teachers and 4 head masters and 4 assistant head masters were randomly and census sampled. Three research questions were formulated and were analysed using simple percentages, mean and constant comparative thematic approach. The study revealed that generally head and assistant head masters and teachers recognize the practice of distributed leadership style in the SHS, that is they perceive distributed leadership as a shared leadership where everyone is considered as a leader and given leadership opportunities. The findings further revealed that traditional and rigid leadership structure, lack of shared responsibility amongst teachers, leaders fear to involve teachers were the dominant challenges of distributed leadership in the study area.


If you speak it, you play it.

Ugo Rodolico

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.373

Languages: Italian

There is a strong need to keep continuously developing new systems of understanding and translation of musical notation (music theory), bearing in mind the close relationship between rhythm, body, and language also stressed by Carl Orff, according to which “at the beginning of each musical exercise, whether melodic or rhythmic, there is a linguistic exercise”. Playing a musical instrument not only constitutes a specific skill in a professional sphere but, more generally, contributes in harmonic terms by activating the synthesis of emotional intelligence that lies between thinking and feeling. The teaching of the drum is certainly the most immediate and engaging way to center all the technical, musical and training objectives provided. Language, in its purest form, becomes a support for the rhythm played on percussion instruments and in particular on the drum.


„Ach, Sie sind Sänger, und was machen Sie tagsüber?“ / "so, you are a singer? and what else do you do on the day?"

Wolfgag Nerwerla

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.372

Languages: German

Artists can only inspire the audience if they are enthusiastic, and if they focus on the things that they can do better than others: They live with seriousness and devotion in the service of author and composer, and especially of the piece to perform. The everyday life of a singer consists of course of a lot of practice and of studying. It takes about four to six years to invest only for the passion and love of music and for a diploma. Why do people still wonder what an oper singer actually does during the day? Wolfgang Newerla tells us about his experience of a life devoted to singing. (Abstract updated 2018.01.06)


ISSN: 2364-0626 Volume 4, Issue 6

Editorial of Volume 4, Issue 6 (2017)

Yaneth Ortiz

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.371

Languages: English

We presented our new feature and new sections design to allow our readers a more pleasant, productive, and easy access to the content of JOSHA Journal and Demetrios Books. As a multilingual platform and with the goal of allowing our worldwide readers an easier access to their language of preference, JOSHA included the "Select language to filter search" option. With this new feature, it will be possible to sort all the content in JOSHA by language. Additionally, we introduced new sections on our webpage, JOSHA Performing arts, music, DEMETRIOS Textbooks, DEMETRIOS Children's Books and DEMETRIOS Literary books.


Somatic mutation or epigenetic modification - Somatische Mutation oder epigenetische Modifikation

Horst Kress

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.370

Languages: German

In the first essay on the subject of the „Renaissance of Lamarckism“ (JOSHA Vol. 3, Issue 4), we explored the historical roots of this term. We saw that Lamarck's (1744-1829) concept ofabout the inheritance of characteristics acquired during an individual`s life through active adaptation was initially even accepted by Darwin. However, since neither the scientific nor the social/political experiment could validate this thesis, it is to be understood that until the 20th century Lamarck's ideas did not gain a foothold in the advancing natural sciences and were more or less pushed out of consciousness, In order to be able to come closer to the topic of inheritance of acquired characteristics, we will first deal with the development of the elucidation of the structure and function of the chromosomes in the present essay.


Photography and the Visual Brain

Chiara Salabé

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.369

Languages: English

Photography has the aim to provide knowledge about the world we live in seizing from the continually changing information one unique moment which expresses the reality (of the artist). Also the brain must discount a great deal of the information which is not essential to its aim of representing the true character of objects. OBJECTIVE: This essay describes the pathways of the brain preceding a camera shot, from the external sensory stimulus, to the elaboration in the neocortex, and finally to the response in the motor action represented by the “click”. The focus is on the visual brain; we will see how it is characterized by a set of parallel processing of perceptual stimuli as well as temporal hierarchical awareness of perception. We will also briefly describe how the elaboration of the external stimulus is transferred into motor action, which in the case of photography is able to capture the essential feature of a specific reality in a fraction of a second.


Herr Frühling und Frau Winter

Mitra Zarif-Kayvan

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.368

Languages: German, Persian

Persian literature has always been characterized by narrations, legends, proverbs and long stories about the changes in all circumstances of humanity and the changes of nature through the change of seasons. Many fairy tales have been passed from one generation to the next and have maintained a current and different version until today. The Fairy tale about the love between Mr. Spring (Amou Norouz) and Ms. Winter (Nanne Sarma) is estimated to be more than 2000 years old. In this old narration, Mr. Spring symbolizes the new beginning, the growth of nature and the Persian New year with the beginning of spring. In contrast, Ms. Winter represents frost, rigidity and stagnation. Both characters together reflect the end of the Persian year with the end of winter and the beginning of the Persian year with the beginning of spring. In a blink of an eye, Ms. Winter, with her departure, brings an end to the cold. While Mr.


Search for synthetic and natural substances with in vitro bioactivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Part I

Maria-Fernanda Moreno , Wellman Ribón

Affiliation: Universidad Industrial de Santander. Colombia.

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.367

Languages: Spanish, Castilian

INTRODUCTION: tuberculosis (TB) is still considered as an important worldwide health problem. For this reason, national and international health agencies encourage the researchers to improve and strengthen the control strategies and disease treatment. Currently, there have been important advances in the discovery and development of drugs that probably will be included in the standard scheme of anti-TB treatment, however for many of the current treatments, there have been resistant strains reported and even worst for most of the new treatments resistance is expected, making it necessary to maintain a continuous search for treatment alternatives. OBJECTIVE: determine the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of 15 synthetic molecules, 14 essential oils and 6 extracts from endemic plants growing in the department of Santander, Colombia.


Language Feature and New Sections in JOSHA

Yaneth Ortiz

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.366

Languages: English

JOSHA keeps improving to allow our readers a more pleasant, productive and easy access to the multidisciplinary papers and books of JOSHA Journal and Demetrios Books covering all aspects of human creativity and discovery with a global perspective. As a multilingual platform and with the goal of allowing our worldwide readers an easier access to their language of preference, beginning in December 2017 JOSHA included the "Select language to filter search" option. With this new feature, it will be possible to sort all the content in JOSHA by language.During the submission process, it is now required to select the language the article is written on. Additionally, Due to the great reception of JOSHA and in response to the needs of our authors and readers we introduce new sections on our webpage, JOSHA Performing arts, music, DEMETRIOS Textbooks, DEMETRIOS Children's Books and DEMETRIOS Literary books.


The Legal Proverb: Fiat iustitia et pereat mundus. Das Rechtssprichwort: Fiat iustitia et pereat mundus

Detlef Liebs

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.365

Languages: German

The paper explains the background of the common Latin proverb use in the field of law: "fiat iustitia et pereat mundus". The history goes back to pope Hadrian VI. in 1522 and then the article discusses the changing of its meaning over the centuries through its translation and its usage. The proverb that was already used by Ferdinand I., Martin Luther and later Immanuel Kant in different contexts made its way through the centuries to become a popular saying for current lawyers. Liebs criticizes that with time, the different usage of the phrase led to the loss of its original meaning. Photo on the cover: Lorenzo Sabbatini (1530–1576). Justitia, 1565 Palazzo Vecchio. Photographer: Sailko, 16 April 2014. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ricetto,_affreschi_di_Lorenzo_Sabatini,_1565_,_06_giustizia.JPG


Die Tochter des Kaufmanns

Mitra Zarif-Kayvan

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.364

Languages: German, Persian

The fairy tale ''The daughter of the businessman'' is an Iranian folktale which has been delivered orally from one generation to another in various versions. This fairy tale was in fact made popular by the famous Iranian story-teller Fazlollah Mohtadi, known as ''Sobhi'' in ''Diwan Balkh''and from Samad Behranghi in ''the fairy tales from Azerbaijan'' and it has been delivered in various versions with different titles. The fairy tale revolves around a beautiful, clever, brave and confident girl who defends herself all alone against prejudice and abuse. She embarks on a long, dangerous and an adventurous journey. At the end, she manages to prove the truth and defend herself. Finally, she marries the innkeeper who values her beauty, intelligence and wisdom and builds a life with him filled with harmony, respect and love. In this book, the Author and the Illustrator portrays this fairy tale in her own version in German and Persian languages.


The lynching of blacks in the United States of America - Photographs as historical memories

Giovanni Corvino, Claudia Bommino

Affiliation: Turin University

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.363

Languages: English

According to the literature, photographs of human lynching had an important role in supporting the practice and the predisposition to photographing. This act was globally common. The aim of this brief paper is to understand why photographs of blacks lynching by whites were so important in the United States of America, especially in the South.


Max Frisch – The Problem of Identity in his Work from a Psychoanalytical Point of View. Second Part.

Gunda Lusser-Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Universität Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.362

Languages: German

This article is the second topic of the dissertation: „Max Frisch – Die Identitätsproblematik in seinem Werk aus psychoanalytischer Sicht“ by the German philologist and psychoanalyst Gunda Lusser-Mertelsmann. She reflects on the special bond and interaction between FREUD’s psychoanalysis and Max FRISCH’S characters, on the universal subjects of life and humanity represented in his work. What do we mean, when we talk about „life“ and do we really achieve all we want by doing nothing more than being ourselves? Does everyone need a certain „awakening“ in his life to understand what is really important? And does suicide mean the loss of identity or can it rather be seen as the search for a new kind of identity, hence is an awakening itself? The following article is written in German. (reprinted with kind permission of „Akademischer Verlag Heinz-Dieter“, Stuttgart 1976).


Apply by December 15th for the NEW IMBS Double Master Program in Biomedical Sciences: MSc from the University of Buenos Aires and MSc from Freiburg University

Christoph Borner, Marta Mollerach, Cristina Arranz, Roland Mertelsmann

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.361

Languages: English

The International Master of Science Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) is an international, interdisciplinary modular and fulltime study program for graduates with professional experience in health or life sciences, medicine or related fields. The IMBS program is a joint program between University of Freiburg (ALU) and the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) in Argentina. After successful graduation, the students will receive a double binational Master degree from the University of Buenos Aires and from Freiburg University. The program which is designed as an intense time of studies and research with practical training qualifies for success in academia or the private sector. It starts with 8 months basic unit in Buenos Aires, continues with an 8 months advanced unit in Freiburg including 5 months individually supervised lab rotation and ends with an 8 months Research Project which leads to a Master Thesis.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - ქართული

Giorgi Gotsiridz

Affiliation: International Academy of Sciences, Humanities, and Arts

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.359

Languages: Georgian

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and provide open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


Breve Introduzione all’Arrangiamento Jazz (Media Formazione) [A Short Introduction to Jazz Arranging (Middle-Sized Ensemble)]

Carmine Cataldo

Affiliation: Independent Researcher, Jazz Pianist and Composer, PhD in Mechanical Engineering, Battipaglia (SA), Italy

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.357

Languages: Italian

In questo articolo viene trattata, in via esclusiva, la struttura di un tipico arrangiamento jazz, fornendo indicazioni riguardanti, fondamentalmente, le metodologie di scrittura. Proponiamo, come modello, un semplice arrangiamento di “Giant Steps”, rinomata composizione di Coltrane, adatto ad una formazione di medie dimensioni. L’organico consiste di sette elementi in tutto: tromba, sassofoni contralto e tenore, trombone, pianoforte, contrabbasso, batteria. Le varie tecniche di arrangiamento, quali parallelismo diatonico e tonicizzazione, vengono in questa sede menzionate ma non discusse. Infatti, ci limiteremo a palesare, sezione per sezione, le strategie adoperate al fine d’ottenere il risultato desiderato. In this paper we exclusively discuss the structure of a typical jazz arrangement, providing some indications concerning, predominantly, the writing methodologies.


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