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ISSN: 2364-0626 Volume 4, Issue 3

The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - Português

Sarah Reichenbach

Affiliation: Grundschule Herbolzheim

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.327

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - Magyar

Rebeka Javorniczky

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.326

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project - русский

Valeria Shlyakhto

Affiliation: Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Department of Hematology and Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.325

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


No idea of risk, Expensive environmental and health panic. Keine Ahnung von Risiko,Teure Umwelt- und Gesundheitspanik.

Walter Krämer

Affiliation: TU Dortmund

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.324

Most people cannot handle risks and probabilities. For alarmists, this is an advantage, for everything new, it is an obstacle How does one recognize a real princess? According to Hans Christian Andersen`s Fairy Tale, by the fact that she is tormented by a pea under twenty mattresses. In the same way millions of Germans have been driven from one panic into the next for decades: by acrylamide and BSE, nitrofen and dioxin (all of course only in the relevant doses), glycol in the wine, E. coli in the salad and amalgam in the teeth, nitrate in groundwater and glyphosate in beer, bird flu and swine fever, anthrax, radiation and electrosmog – it is a miracle that we are still alive. In reality, of course, truth, the health of Germans as measured by life expectancy is constantly increasing. Current anxieties focus on nitric oxide and fipronil, the new egg poison.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - 普通話

YI-HSUAN LO

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.323

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - English

Felicitas S. Holzer, Roland H. Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Uniklinik Freiburg, Med 1

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.322

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


International Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts e.V. - Annual Report 2016

Gerhard G. Steinmann, Christiane Lange, Roland H. Mertelsmann

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.321

The International Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts (IASHA) e.V., a registered society located in Freiburg, Germany was founded on June 20th, 2015. The Academy is pursuing exclusively and immediately charitable objectives to foster the advancement of sciences, humanities and arts. According to its by-laws, the Academy is reporting annually on its activities and financial status. The year 2016 is the first complete fiscal year after the foundation of IASHA e.V. The Annual Report of the International Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts (IASHA) e.V. was unanimously approved at the Annual Meeting of IASHA on June 6th, 2017. The homepage of the Academy can be found under https://iasha.org . If you would like to join IASHA as a member, please fill out the contact form on the homepage or send a mail asking for membership to admin@josha-archive.org.


HOTELS - DESIGN PRINCIPLES - in the Albanian Language

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.312

Each chapter of textbook presents and reflects the normative, standards, technical details of the Tourism and Hotel Architectural Design Principles, accompanied with photographs, drawings, sketches and case studies, followed by discussions, quotes, and citations by various authors, as well as official government publications as the academic comparative references. There are eleven chapters, each chapter extensive explain and discuss issues related to the specific topic of the Tourism and Hotel Architectural Design Principles. The chapters from two to three: Introduces and elaborates the fundamental definitions in the context of the diversity of the meaning variations, followed by the criteria and classification of the hotels.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - Español

Yaneth Ortiz

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.318

International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts, IASHA e.V. Freiburg, Deutschland The JOSHA Demetrios Project With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - Farsi (Persian)

Soma Almasi

Affiliation: University College, London, UK

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.316

With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - Albanian

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.317

With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: - Deutsch

Felicitas Holzer, Roland H. Mertelsmann

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.315

With the July 2017 issue, JOSHA is starting the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries. JOSHA will focus initially on publishing and providing open-access to textbooks in any field of Science, Humanities and the Arts, to students and readers worldwide. JOSHA will publish textbooks in any language after appropriate peer review by experts in the field knowledgeable of the respective language.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project – Francais

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.313

The JOSHA Demetrios Project: Monographs, Textbooks and Papers in any Language as “Books as Open Online Content (BOOC)” Das JOSHA Demetrios Projekt: Monographien, Lehrbücher und Artikel in allen Sprachen zur kostenlosen Lektüre und zum kostenlosen Download (Books as Open Online Content “BOOC”). With this issue, JOSHA is starting a new project, the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as an universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries.


Between the Lines: The Language and Art of Death

Stephanie H. Lim, Jeremiah de Leon

Affiliation: Department of Medical Oncology, Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.311

This short paper reflects on the attitudes that modern society has towards death, which affect and form the language that we use to describe death. The key domains of concern to the dying are described, as well as the patterns of social interactions. It explores how the visual arts can offer an alternate and cathartic form of communication of death, as shown by the patient experience with cancer. Ultimately, it encourages us to view medicine as an art, and also art as medicine.


PhD Student representation - Bridging the gap between science, service and politics

Lukas Peintner

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.310

Many universities have one or several doctoral colleges that train up to several hundreds of students. But different to undergrad students these PhD students are usually not part of any social groups or classes within the university. So it is the job of the PhD students itself to gather and share their experiences and expertise when it comes to start a new project or to wrap up your thesis and submit it to the final examination. At many universities PhD student representation is done by enthusiastic students that want to help their peers. This comment aims to outline the daily duty of student representatives. The subtitle “Bridging the gap between science, service and politics” outlines the vast opportunities a student representation has. Motivated students are able to organize conferences or science days, they can organize get togethers and horizontal transfer of ideas and methods, but they are also able to influence policy making at the university.


COMMERCIAL HYBRID BUILDINGS - Planning and Design - in the Albanian Language

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.309

Each chapter of textbook presents and reflects the standards, technical details of the Hybrid Buildings architectural design, accompanied by photographs, drawings, sketches and case studies. There are six chapters, each chapter extensive explain and discuss issues related to the specific topic of Commercial Hybrid Building Design Principles. The second chapter presents and elaborates the history and the development of the road transports. The third chapter elaborates the classification and road urban systems. The fourth chapter introduces the basic principles of parking garages functions, followed by the main chapter of this monograph, which describes the environmental concepts for parking garages locations, guidelines and conceptual design principles of parking garages structures with commercial buildings. The fifth chapter elaborates the design practice and design principles with presented case studies.


Predictive Policing - The Algorithm Knows When And Where You Will Commit Your Crime. - Critical View Of New Possibilities In Police Work Using The Example Precobs.

Philipp Reichenbach

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.308

Since the 19th century police work has been based on the use and analysis of criminal data. Today these maps are created by software using self-learning algorithms, which are designed to enable not only data analysis but also predictions about the future. This software, based on the latest advances in data science is called predictive policing. It is a multidisciplinary approach involving the collection of large amounts of data as well as its systematically filtered evaluation and criminal theories. On the one hand, predictive policing software conveys a lot of chances for making police work more efficient, reducing crime rates and increase security at focal points. On the other hand, it is necessary to discuss critical issues like the possibility of false interpretation, poor data protection, privacy issues and racism.


AIRPORTS - PLANNING AND DESIGN - In the Albanian Language

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.307

Each chapter of textbook presents, and reflects to the standards, technical details of the airports architectural design, accompanied with photographs, drawings, sketches and case studies. The textbook is divided into eleven chapters as a result of the specificity of the study to the airports architectural design. The first, second and third chapters, presents and elaborates the history of the aviation and airports, followed by the classification and systems of the airports mega structures. The chapters from four to five: introduces the basic principles of airports terminal functions, followed by the main chapter of this monograph, which describe the concepts, guidelines and conceptual design principles of airports architectural design, further strengthened the design principles with three case studies.


SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - Principles - In the Albanian Language

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.306

Each chapter presents, and reflects the guide of the technical details of sustainable architectural design, accompanied with photographs, drawings and case studies. The textbook is divided into sixteen chapters as a result of the specificity of the study. The second chapter presents and elaborates the specifics of the current practice of the linear design process, followed by the third chapter, which elaborates the fundamental definitions in the context of the diversity of the meaning variations. The chapters from four to eight: Introduces new approaches by which architects are responding to the challenges for creating sustainable architecture, defining the contemporary approaches to the organic architecture which are inspired by nature, analyzing and describing the basic principles on achieving the human comfort, followed by the main chapter of this monograph, which describe the concepts, guidelines and conceptual design principles in terms of a sustainable architectural design.


The JOSHA Demetrios Project: Monographs and Papers in any Language

Felicitas S. Holzer, Roland H. Mertelsmann

Affiliation: University of Buenos Aires

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.305

The JOSHA Demetrios Project: Monographs, Textbooks and Papers in any Language as “Books as Open Online Content (BOOC)” Das JOSHA Demetrios Projekt: Monographien, Lehrbücher und Artikel in allen Sprachen zur kostenlosen Lektüre und zum kostenlosen Download (Books as Open Online Content “BOOC”). With this issue, JOSHA is starting a new project, the Demetrios Project. We chose Demetrios of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus and most probably of Aristotle, as the name patron of our project. Demetrios was instrumental in establishing the ancient Library of Alexandria, probably the largest and most significant library of the ancient world covering all aspects of Science, Humanities and the Arts in many different languages. It is our objective to open up JOSHA as a universally accessible, open access library to all languages and countries.


Max Frisch – The Problem of Identity in his Work from a Psychoanalytical Point of View - Max Frisch - Die Identitätsproblematik in seinem Werk aus psychoanalytischer Sicht

Gunda Lusser-Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Universität Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.300

This article ist the first topic oft the dissertation „Max Frisch - Die Identitätsproblematik in seinem Werk aus psychoanalytischer Sicht“ by the German philologist and psychoanalyst Gunda Lusser-Mertelsmann. She reflects on the special bond and interaction between FREUD`s psychoanalysis and Max FRISCH`s characters, on the universal subjects of life and humanity represented in his work. What is identity, how does it change when love enters the picture, and where can society fit into our very personal understanding of who we are? What does it mean if we fail and how does the reflection of our own personality change when we do? In this first part, Gunda Lusser-Mertelsmann writes about the problem of identity with a special focus on the role of gender. The following article is written in German. (reprinted with kind permission of „Akademischer Verlag Heinz-Dieter“, Stuttgart 1976). Keywords: Max Frisch, Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalysis, Gender, Identity, Language: German


Editorial Volume 4 Issue 2

Anusha Venkatraman

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.299

In this issue, we once again have an amazing amalgamation of topics involving history, law, medicine and arts in 11 articles. The first article in this issue, contributed by Stephen Seiler, makes the readers revisit history. The article contributed by Frank Wertheimer addresses a key reform that has been made in the medical school education system in Germany. The contribution by Werner Schempp with his article ''Individuality and integrity of humans in the modern age: Considerations of a natural scientist'' gives the readers a food for thought. The authors Usman Al-Amin and group contributed two insightful articles on pharmaceutical boom and poverty reduction program in Nigeria. The author Charles Mark gives us fresh perspectives on the existing commercial agent's regulations in England and Scottland. Yet another exciting short story by Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer is refreshing and fun to read.


ISSN: 2364-0626 Volume 4, Issue 2

The Applicability of the Alien Tort Statute to Human Rights Violations by Private Corporations

Hannah Dittmers

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.296

The Supreme Court of the United States in April 2017 announced to decide on an issue that is not uniformly assessed by US circuit courts: The highest US court granted the petition for certiorari on the question whether private corporations can be sued under the Alien Tort Statute of 1789, a rather cryptic US law that allows foreign plaintiffs to sue defendants before US courts for their violations of international (human rights) law. Among the circuit courts, the famous Kiobel decision of the Second Circuit was the only opinion that denied that corporations can be held accountable under the Act. Now the Supreme Court is going to rule on the contentious question, the answer to which will possibly have implications for the human rights litigation worldwide. Affiliation: University of Michigan Law School.


Scientific cooperation between Italy and Israel: A perspective looking to the future

Mario Pagliaro

Affiliation: Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Palermo, Italy

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.294

From renewable energy through neuroscience, from chemistry to nanotechnology, the scientific cooperation between Italy and Israel touches many fields and involves hundreds of scholars and students in both countries. We identify the main research policy factors that led to this successful outcome, and those that might drive forthcoming cooperation between these two Mediterranean countries whose science linkages have a long and significant history.


Nachts

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.295

This article is part of a series of short stories published in the Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts by the young author Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, who received the "Jean-Paul" Award in 2013 and the "Tom Sawyer" Award in 2012 for her work. Her last story "Prom Night" (published in Volume 4, Issue 1) was written in English, but this time JOSHA is publishing one of her German stories. Someone is awake at night. We don’t know her name and we don’t know where she is or why she woke up. The only thing we get to know is how this young girl experiences the moments of silence and the warm feeling of beeing sure that everyone she cares about is sleeping safe and peaceful in their beds while she wanders through a lonely, but beautiful night. And maybe she isn’t really alone after all... Dieser Artikel ist Teil einer Kurzgeschichtenreihe der jungen Autorin Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, die 2013 den „Jean-Paul“ Award und 2012 den „Tom Sawyer“ Award für ihre Arbeit erhalten hat.


The Law or: The affliction (Das Gesetz oder: Die Heimsuchung)

Hans-Joachim Behrendt

Affiliation: Criminal Law Department, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.291

The article follows the life story of Oedipus as it is told by Sophocles in “King Oedipus”. The drama shows, that Oedipus´ fate is nearly inescapably determined by marks, that early traumatic incest with his mother has left on his character. Thus the Sophoclean play as a whole is the continuous description of a merciless duel between Oedipus and his mother, who either appears in a preoedipal form as the Sphinx or as an oedipal figure. The method of interpretation here applied apparently is based on psychoanalysis. The article supports the opinion, that modern psychological- psychiatric understanding of the parent – child – incest is hardly ahead of the view taken by Sophocles in ancient times. [Article in German] Picture by Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: Program Evaluation and Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.290

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993: English and Scottish commercial courts interpretations of the law reflect reality

Charles Mak

Affiliation: Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.289

This article seeks to analyse whether the ways Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993 have been interpreted prove that English and Scottish commercial courts understand commercial law as a mirror to the changing nature of commercial practices. This article is divided into two parts. The first part will examine those main confusions that arise from the Regulation. Furthermore, the article will discuss whether the English and Scottish commercial courts have clarified their scope of application and ensure their efficiency in protecting commercial agents by their interpretation of the regulations.


The Growth of Pharmaceutical Business in Borno State, Nigeria, 1976-1999

Usman Al-amin, Halima Baba Shehu , Fati Mohammed Ngaran

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.286

Pharmaceuticals, especially drug distribution, are so priceless that no nation can survive without them. This business has virtually touched the lives of people in so many ways. This work focuses on pharmaceutical business in Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria from 1976 to 1999. Primary and secondary sources generated from interviews and documentary data from libraries and other centers formed the bedrock of the data used herein. The primary sources included: interviews with present pharmaceutical operators, random sample interviews with wholesalers, retailers, peddlers, pharmacists, and individuals of the Borno State Ministry of Health, NAFDAC officials as well as some of the oldest operators of pharmaceutical stores in Borno State.


The Role of Community-Based Agricultural and Rural Development Programme in Poverty Reduction in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria: 2005-2009

Usman Al-amin, Halima Baba Shehu , Fati Mohammed Ngaran

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.285

The Community Base Agricultural and Rural Development Programme (CBARDP) in conjunction with International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD subsequently referred as CBARDP/IFAD) is an important poverty reduction programme. The programme contributed to the improvement of the lives of the people, particularly the vulnerable in poor rural participating areas, which also helped in the prevention of degradation of the environment. This study examines the role of the programme in poverty reduction in the participating communities of Guba, Kaliyari, and Kurnawa in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria from 2005–2009. In doing so, examination of relevant materials and conduction of interviews with some of the beneficiaries of the scheme and staff of the programme formed the sources of data used in analysing the impact of the programme.


Individuality and integrity of humans in the modern age: Considerations of a natural scientist

Werner Schempp

Affiliation: Institute of Human Genetics, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.284

We owe the unexpected and rapid progress in medical research and therapeutic methods to the far-reaching scientific knowledge of the past decades. Nowadays, the Internet makes information available worldwide within seconds, and, through social media, creates a "reality" that can hardly be verified. On the one hand, this development makes the modern people in the high-tech regions of our world striving, more than ever, for individuality and self-realization. On the other hand, these technical possibilities, such as interventions in reproductive medicine, organ transplantation, advances in cloning techniques, or the development of artificial intelligence, favor a "de-individualization" of the human being. Art can be a mediator for overcoming this completely polar development in today's science. [Article in German] Acknowledgments: I thank Drs. Birgitta Gläser, Ingvo Broich, Michael Leipoldt, and Michael Wolf for critically reading and suggesting improvements to this article.


Safeguarding Academic Freedom in the 'Masterplan Medical Studies 2020' (Sicherung der Lehrfreiheit im „Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020“)

Frank Wertheimer

Affiliation: Krauss Law, Lahr, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.283

Recently, the German government has planned to reform the medical school education system. Under the heading “masterplan medical education 2020” a commission composed of science and health ministers has been developing proposals for practical relevance and reinforcing the proportion of general medicine. Specifically, it is planned to introduce a mandatory rotation of general medicine in the practical year of medical school, which will have to be performed by a general practitioner accredited by the public health insurance. To this end, general practitioners are thought to participate in teaching medical students during the practical year on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, general medicine is supposed to become a mandatory part of the final oral and practical state exam which takes place after the practical year.


Prof. Dr. em. Gottfried Schramm "Versäumte Begegnungen II Anfang Mai 1805 in Weimar: Ein Freundespaar verbessert seine Balladen - Missed encounters II Mai 1805 in Weimar: Goethe and Schiller discuss their ballads"

Stephan Seiler

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.282

Gottfried Schramm Anfang Mai 1805 in Weimar: Ein Freundespaar verbessert seine Balladen Versäumte Begegnungen wurden schon oft geschildert. Königin Elisabeth von England hat ihre gefangengehaltene Rivalin 1587 nicht im Garten vom Schloss Fotheringhay aufgesucht. Ebenso wenig empfing der kaiserliche Feldherr Albrecht von Wallenstein 1634 im Feldlager von Pilsen einen schwedischen Unterhändler – Aber es hätte geschehen können. Die Folge der acht geschilderten Begegnungen haben in Mußestunden Gestalt angenommen, die ein Freiburger Historiker im Ruhestand sich ausgiebiger als früher gönnt. Auch wenn er sich diesmal die Maske eines fabulierenden Erzählers aufsetzt, geht es nicht um Belletristik, sondern um Geschichte, die sich wirklich ereignet hat. Nur muss man sie diesmal aus Szenen und Wortwechseln herauslesen, zu denen es leider nicht gekommen ist.


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